Petroleum System Study Field Development Plans Reservoir Characterization Reservoir Engineering E&P Acreage Evaluation
Gravity and Magnetic Modeling 2D/3D Seismic Interpretation Structural Modeling Geological Interpretation Volumetrics and Ranking Petrophysics Structure Restoration Fault Seal Analysis
Biostratigraphy Core Description Cyclo-Sequence Stratigraphy Sedimentology
Log & Map Digitizing Seismic Vectorization Composite Logs Drafting
Short Courses On Job Training Field Trips
NeuraLog WellCAD Geodes Lithotect RokDoc
Preface Clients ListCareers Contact Us

Application on Structure Geology in Seismic Interpretation

Course & Workshop

January 24-28, 2021

Instructor : Dr. Saleh Hammed


Geologists, Geophysicists, Explorationists, Supervisors and Managers

COURSE Summary

The present course focuses on the seismic expressions of the structural assemblages in extensional, salt, compressional, strike-slip and inversion settings. Theoretical and practical structural patterns and styles of natural geologic structures which have been identified from outcrops, derived by analog models or detected by ideal or synthetic seismic data and drilling activities will be presented as interpretation tool. The worldwide cases of producing structures from numerous basins are used to illustrate the common styles and their seismic expression. The key pitfalls in seismic and structural interpretation are discussed. A brief on the structure balancing and restoration techniques to validate structural interpretations will be included. The benefits and limitations of seismic attributes in structural interpretation will be displayed and Integrate data from the large seismic scale to subseismic scale, including seismic anisotropy, to understand better the overall petroleum system. The interaction of the structural system with the stratigraphic and sedimentologic environment for better prediction of reservoir formation. Real examples will be provided tobe familiar with structures seismic interpretation of complex deformational sites with integration of other geologic data.



Role of Structural Geology in Seismic Interpretation
  • Concept of Comparative Structural Styles
  • Structural Models and Their Use in Seismic Interpretationo large seismic scale to subseismic scale structures and seismic anisotropy
  • Seismic Attributes.

Common pitfalls in Seismic structural interpretation
  • Velocity Effects, Seismic Pull ups and Pushdowns, Subsalt and Subthrust Interpretation, Fault Shadows, Steep Dip Imaging and Migration Effects
  • Fold and Fault Geometries and their Seismic Expression and a brief on applied Seismic Attributes
  • Geometry and mechanism of Polygonal faults, surface examples and reservoir performance

Polygonal Fault System in Late Cretaceous Sediments of Cauvery Deepwater Basin, India

Seismic interpretation of extensional structures
  • Geometries of extensional faults - planar and listric faults; analogue models of extensional fault
  • systems; rift tectonics and sedimentation
  • Case histories of extensional Basin and Range SW USA and Gulf of Suez.

Basement Involved Structures:
  • Symmetric Graben-Horst Structures
  • Rotated Fault Blocks and Half-Grabens
  • Drape Folds. Detached Structures:
  • Listric Faults and Rollover Folds
  • Synthetic and Antithetic Faults.

Map Patterns and Transfer Zones.
  • Extensional highly rotated fault block geometry, southern Gulf of Suez oil fields
  • Transfer Zone Geometry.

Seismic interpretation of salt and shale structures.
  • Salt Properties and Related Seismic Expression
  • Salt Pillows, Diapirs, Bulbs and Canopies, Salt-related Faults
  • Salt Sheets and Canopies oMinibasins oSubsalt Structures
  • Salt and Shale Structures - Similarities and Differences

Seismic interpretation of compressional structures
  • Fold and Thrust Belts:
  • Fault-Bend Folds
  • Fault-Propagation Folds oDetachment and Faulted Detachment Folds oDuplexes
  • Triangle Zones oTypes of Basement-Involved Compressional Structures
    • Fault-bend folds.
    • Quirk Creek anticline.
    • Imbricate fault-related folding.

Seismic interpretation of Gravitational structures
  • Mechanism and modelling of Gravitational and their tectonic setting of gravitational structures. Geometry and interpretation
  • Gravitational fold and thrust belts (GFTBs) in the deep waters.
  • Gravitational folding Gulf of Aqaba
  • Gravitational faults of Delta sediments

Seismic interpretation of Inversion and strike-slip structures
  • Fundamental tectonic settings; 3D kinematic evolution of strike-slip fault systems; analogue modeling of strike-slip structures; natural examples of strike-slip fault systems.
  • Settings for inversion; geometries of inverted fault systems; 2D and 3D models of inversion structures; case histories of inverted basins.
  • Mechanisms of Inversion and Reactivation oAnomalous Separation and Growth Patterns oTranspressional Structures oTranstensional Structures oReleasing and Restraining Bends.
    • Flower structures in Khalda Concession, Western Desert Egypt.
    • Inversion in the North Western Desert basins of Egypt and their hydrocarbon potentials.
    • Pull-Apart Basin in the Offshore Cauvery-Palar Basin, India.
    • Inversion in the Umiat Basin National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), North Slope, Alaska.

The interaction of the structural system with the stratigraphic and sedimentologic in Delta and Deep environments for better prediction of reservoir formation.
  • Stratigraphic and structural interaction of the Early Pliocene reservoirs, Offshore Nile Delta- Egypt: With emphasis on the seismic amplitude attributes.
  • Rosetta Fault and reservoir channel pass-ways Nile Delta, Egypt

Balancing and restoration in interpretation validation

Discussion of all structural styles will be followed by case studies of producing structures using seismic and other subsurface and surface data

Restoration real examples of extensional and compressional areas and Nile Delta

  • Validate an interpretation of the Wheeler Ridge anticline using a combination of validation tools and ablock restoration workflow

  • Block Restoration to determine reservoir potential and connectivity between fault blocks in synthetic prograding Delta

Interpretation Exercises
Background Information
  • Structural Component of Exercise
  • Stratigraphic Component of Exercise
  • Procedure
  • Solution


The Five days will be held at Holiday Inn (Former Sofitel Hotel), in Cairo.


Inclusive of refreshment and lunch at the Holiday Inn (Former Sofitel Hotel).



BSc, Geology, First Class Honours, Cairo University, Giza, 1990.

MSc in basement tectonics, Cairo University, 1995

PhD, Structural Geology, Geological institute (ETH), Zurich & Cairo University 2002


  • Demonstrator, Cairo University, Cairo, 1990-1995
  • Asst. Lecturer, Cairo University, Cairo, 1996-2001.
  • Asst. Lecturer, American University in Cairo, 1995-2000.
  • Asst. lecturer, ETH, Zurich, 1999-2002
  • Lecturer, Cairo University, Cairo, since 2002
  • Research scientist, and Field advisor, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland since 2002.
  • Principle consultant of AL Mashora Geologic consulting, Cairo-Kuwait, 1995-2005
  • Lecturer of petroleum geosciences program, Cairo University 2008
  • Visiting researcher at Geology Department, Catania, University, Italy, March 2008
  • E-learning scientific advisor (GNS- Egypt), 2008-11.
  • Consultant Integrated Geoconsultancy (IGC), Cairo-Kuwait

Geologic Software
GeoFrame - Petrel- 2D&3D Move, Kingdom, RockWorks Utilities
Image analysis software ERDASS and ENVI GIS and Map-info
Paleostress analysis (T-Tecto, Sperna, NDA, SVB, etc) Stretch (modelling and basin analysis)

  • Subjects: tectonics, structural geology, basin dynamics, petroleum exploration, watershed analysis, remote sensing image analysis.
  • Methods: field studies (paleostress, fracture analysis), GIS modules, GPR, subsurface data analysis (Geoframe, Petrel, Rockworks, etc), numerical modelling, Matlab programming, Physical analogue modelling, digital mapping and GPS SURVEY.
  • Working Field: Egypt, Iraq, Morocco, Kuwait, Jordan and Europe (Switzerland, Norway, Germany, Italy, Croatia, France).
  • Field leader, consultation and instructor for numerous oil companies and consulting companies including EREx, Transglobe, Dot Norke, North Energy, DNO, PGNiG SA, SUCO, GPC,GUPCO, INA, Petrogulf, Dara, Bapetco, RWA, OGS, Petrobel, petrosalam, Gemsa., Amapetco , and others
  • Involved with various geothermal energy projects in Switzerland 2002-2007.
  • Structural Geology consultant for Hamash Misr for gold mines
  • Groundwater flow in Alpine fractured crystalline massifs and their relationship with underground works, Civil Engineering Project at the Fédéral Technical School of Lausanne (Switzerland), Laboratory of Geology (GEOLEP)
  • Field Leader for West central Sinai Field mapping courses for students of ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Oslo University Norway, Mainz University, Germany and Catania University, Italy.
  • Field advisor for the annual geologic Trips (Petroleum engineering, American University).
  • Involved in Egyptian black shale evaluation project with (Petroleum engineering, American University).
  • Geologic consultant of GeoModelling Solutions GmbH, Zurich, Switzerland, since1999
  • We (geomodelling solution) have performed case studies for sedimentary basins worldwide, including the Gulf of Mexico, Norway-Greenland, the Barents Sea, China, Ghana, and Australia. We usually work on client specific problems and do not directly market regional reports. However, our work on the Barents, East Greenland, and V?ring basins is available through the geophysical atlases of TGS-VBPR.

  • Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping
  • Surface Geological Mapping
  • Field mapping and Regional Geology
  • Remote sensing and geologic mapping
  • Fracture analysis and image log interpretation
  • Naturally Fractured Reservoirs and their modelling
  • Structural Geology in Hydrocarbon Exploration and exploitation
  • Sedimentary Basin Analysis And Hydrocarbon Potentiality
  • GIS
  • Rock mechanics for PG
  • Geostatistics

RESEARCH GROUP (projects and MSc and PhD thesis)
  • Ichnology and Palaenvironmental reconstruction of the Lower Cambrian rocks, Um Bogma Area, Sinai, Egypt (2003)
  • Geological studies on carbonate rocks of Qattamyia district, and their use in Egyptian cement industry (2005) National institute of building material research.
  • Stratigraphic, sedimentologic and mineralogic studies on the Oligocene red beds and the associated volcanics of El Fayoum and Greater Cairo district, Egypt (2007)
  • Numerical Structural modeling of gravity induced folding: A case study from the Western margin of Gulf of Aqaba, (2008)
  • Structural and hydrocarbon habitats of Sidri-Firan Field, Gulf of Suez Rift, Egypt (2009), Petrobel Oil Company.
  • Structural modelling and hydrocarbon potentiality of Wadi Ghoweiba rift segment, the North-western sector of Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt (2010)
  • Engineering geology studies and mapping of expensive soil of Kom Oshim, Fayoum Egypt (2010)
  • Digital geologic mapping and genesis of Karst related features in some Egyptian territories (2012) Ministry of Environmental Affairs
  • Structure architecture of Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt (2008) Ganoup Oil Company
  • Structural and reservoir modeling of Ras Budran Oil Field, East central Gulf Of Suez Egypt (2011) Suez Oil Company.
  • Integrated geological modeling of Ras Fanar Oil Field, West Central Gulf Of Suez Egypt (2011) Suez Oil Company
  • Geologic Model of Kareem reservoir in North Zeit Bay Concession (NZBC), Gemsa Basin, Southern Gulf Of Suez, Egypt.
  • Tectono-Stratigraphic evolution of El Hamra and Shabrawet structures, East and West of Suez Canal, Egypt (2011)
  • 4D Geological mapping and structural model of Hammam Faraun Block (2012)
  • Evaluation der Basement Reservoire der ostlichen Riftschulter des Golf von Suez, SW Sinai Geisum, ETHZ, Suco
  • Fracture modeling of surface and subsurface Eocene Carbonates of in NOW oil field, Petrosalam Co. and AOC

  • El Ashri Cairo University Grant best M Sc & PhD in the academic year 1995 & 2002
  • Swiss Grant for the best article in the Swiss tectonic meeting 2001
  • ETH Zurich fund for surface analogue for basement reservoir characterization project